Multimedia news stories that provide the facts with rich context from diverse viewpoints
Tool for breaking down claikms.
Introduction using The Giving Tree: Introduction to Argument using Shel Silverstein's The Giving Tree. Tell students that they will be participating in a debate, arguing for one of the following: either the tree in the story is stronger or the boy in the story is stronger. Students take notes during read aloud, split into sides, share format and go!.
Poetry (A Poem a Day) for Collective Interpretation.
Have students read a poem short and as long as 2 pages. Have students annotate for what pops out at them (language, images etc.) Have students read aloud, 2-3 times by different students. Summative Q: How would the poet like you to live your life after reading this
Persuasive elements are there to get us to believe the argument
Rhetorical elements say, "I'm an expert and I don't need to unpack that for you"
Persuasive Tone Descriptors: confident, authoritative, exaggerated, hyberbolic, mitigated (cautious), judgmental, emotional investment, assumptive (not informed), false authority (cocky/arrogant), internal contradiction, shift in tone, more objective or more subjective.
Debate is a method for teaching and practicing argument.
Trivial topics can't be argued well.
Argument requires both creating evidence based claims and a supported opposition
Students will naturally realize when they need information to back up a reason; if info is made up, it will be opposed by other side.
Present argument to convince a particular authentic audience.
Learn history through argument by analyzing history's real court cases.
Release text strategically; lead kids down a path of critical thinking. "I think because" For ex: 1st text what did you see? 2nd text did you see anything else? Go back to 1st text any similarities? 3rd text anything that you saw in others? Read again: What do you see now that you didn't see the first time?
Introduce technical terms. Define and have students look for evidence of term in text.
Have students identify which clues of reliability are explicit vs. implicit
Have students test assumptions using probing questions
Have students compare/contrast texts for reliability
When you can't find the perfect text, you may have to write it!
Give students the opportunity to share an argument that they're having before teaching argument within content area.
Students need to be aware of False Logic: makes assumptions, oversimplifies or reason doesn't match outcome
Students often see nonfiction text as factual, difficult to see point of view and bias.
Gladwell, Blink. Section on Mitigated Language
Gladwell, Tipping Point. Sections on Blues Clues, Sesame St and Dora
Birkenstein, Cathy. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing.
Willhelm, Jeff. Oh, yeah. Discusses making curricula culturally relevant; includes many logic exercises here)
Fletcher, Jennifer. Teaching Argument
Kuhn, Deanna. Argue with Me developmental pathways
Everything's an Argument. Aargument shouldn't be a unit of study; should be a culture!